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Geographical Indications Protection

Geographical Indications Protection In Indonesia Based on Cultural Rights Approach
by Miranda Risang Ayu
Publisher: The Nagara Institute
Pages: 408 hlm
Size: 15 x 24 cm (hard cover)
ISBN: 978-979-1436-17-5
Price: Rp 200.000 (LIMITED EDITION)
Geograpichal Indication is a type of Intelectual Property Right which consist of a trade name on a product that identifies a geographical origin, and perticularly, a special character resulted from the origin, that makes a product distinctive.
This research is started by exploring several aspects which can influence the establishment of the legal means in national levels; the international laws, the variations of legal means in a number of selected countries, and the current development of Geographical Indication in every South Easth Asian countries.
It is than focused on the Indonesian legal protection for Geographical Indications. This research contributes four optional models of legal means to protect Geographical Indication in the national levels hich can be applicable for Indonesia and other TRIPS member countries. This research will also propose the best legal means, including all important aspects, to develop a solid protection for Geographical Indication in Indonesia.
* * * *
Miranda Risang Ayu was born on August, 10, 1968, in Bandung, Indonesia. She finished her undergraduate (SH) in the Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (1987-1993). Under the Australian developmant Scholarships, she followed a Master of Laws (LLM) program in 2002 and a Doctor of Philosopy in Laws (PhD) Program between 2004-2007 in the Faculty of Law, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Now, she is a law lecturer and head of Intelectual Property Rights Office in the University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables and Charts » 16
List of Maps » 17
List of Pictures » 18
Abstract » 21
CHAPTER I
Introduction » 24
Background » 24
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 25
Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 27
Protectable Elements » 30
Geographical Indications Protection in Developed Countries » 33
Geographical Indications Protection in South East Asian Countries » 33
Geographical Indications Implementation Problem in Indonesia » 35
Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 37
The Cultural Rights Based Approach » 37
The Advantages of Using Cultural Rights Based Approach in Indonesia » 37
Research Questions » 38
Aims and Objectives » 39
Output » 39
Hypotheses » 39
Methodology » 40
Types of Data » 40
Methods of Data Collection » 40
Library and On-Line Research » 40
Field Research » 40
Areas of Data Collection » 41
Institutional Data Areas » 41
Market Polling Areas » 41
Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 41
Methods of Data Analysis » 43
CHAPTER II
Geographical Indications Protection in the Context of International Law » 46
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46
The Brief History of TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46
The International Trade Organization » 48
The Birth of the TRIPS Agreement » 49
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 52
Geographical Indications as the TRIPS In-Built Agenda in the WTO Ministerial Conferences » 59
Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 61
The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 » 61
The Madrid Agreement, 1891 and The Madrid Protocol concerning the International Registration of Marks, 1989 » 64
The Madrid Agreement, 1891 for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods » 65
The Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and Their International Registration, 1958 » 66
The Stresa Convention for the Use of Appellation of Origin and Denomination of Cheeses, 1951 » 68
Legal Concepts related to Geographical Indications in International Conventions » 68
A Comparison between the Concepts of Geographical Indications, Appellation of Origins, Designation of Origins and Indication of Source » 68
Geographical Indications » 70
Appellation of Origins » 72
Designation of Origins » 74
Indication of Source » 76
Legal Concepts in Trade Mark Law and Practice concerning Geographical Indications » 78
Collective Marks » 9
Certification Marks » 9
Legal Concept of Anti Unfair Competition concerning Geographical Indications » 79
The Common Law’s Tort of Passing-Off » 80
The Extension of the Meaning of Producers and Public of a Geographical Indication » 82
The Extension of the Passing-Off Concept » 84
Protectable Elements in Geographical Indications » 85
The Meaning of ‘Indications which Identify a Good’ » 86
The Meaning of ‘a Good’ » 87
The Meaning of ‘Originating in the Territory of a Member, or a Region or Locality in that Territory’ » 88
The Meaning of ‘Quality, Reputation or Other
Characteristic’ » 89
The Meaning of ‘Essentially Attributable to Its Geographical Origin’ » 90
CHAPTER III
Geographical Indications in Europe, The United States of America, Australia and India » 94
Geographical Indications Protection in the European Community » 95
The Legal Bases of Geographical Indication Protection in the European Community » 95
The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 2081, 1992 » 97
The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 510, 2006 » 99
The Importance of the ‘Turron’ Decision » 100
Geographical Indications in France » 101
Appellation of Origins in France » 101
Geographical Indications in France » 102
Indication of Source in France » 103
Geographical Indications Protection in the United States of America » 104
Certification Marks under the United States Trade Mark Act,1946 » 105
Ownership » 107
Wines and Spirits Protection under The United States Trade Marks Act 1946 and The United States Regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) » 108
Homonymous Geographical Indications » 109
Geographical Indication Protection in the United States Common Law Protection System » 110
Law Enforcement for Geographical Indications in the United States Trade Mark Counterfeiting Act, 1984 » 110
Geographical Indications Protection System in Australia » 110
Australian Membership in International Conventions in respect to Geographical Indications » 111
The TRIPS Agreement, 1994 » 112
Australia in accordance with Bilateral Agreements regarding Geographical Indications Protection » 112
Bilateral Agreement between Australia and The European Union, 1994 » 112
Australia and New Zealand Cooperation Concerning Food Authority Labelling and Advertising Standard » 114
Australian National Protection System for Geographical Indications » 114
The Australian Trade Practice Act, 1974 (Cth) » 114
The Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation Act, 1980 and the Australian Food Standards Code Spirit Standard » 115
Geographical Indication Protection in the Australian Trade Mark Act, 1995 (Cth) » 116
The Categorization System of Geographical Indications on Goods in regard with the Nice Agreement » 118
Geographical Indications in India » 119
CHAPTER IV
Geographical Indications in South East Asian Countries » 128
Geographical Indications in Singapore » 128
Geographical Indications in the Philippines » 130
Geographical Indications in Malaysia » 136
Geographical Indications in Brunei Darussalam » 139
Geographical Indications in Thailand » 140
Geographical Indications in Cambodia » 141
Geographical Indications in Lao People Democratic Republic » 147
Geographical Indications in Myanmar » 150
Geographical Indications in Vietnam » 152
Vietnam’s Basic Laws in Protecting Geographical Indications » 153
The Civil Code of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 153
The Government Decree Number 63/CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 155
The Government Decree Number 12/1999/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 156
The Government Decree Number 54/2000/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 158
CHAPTER V
Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164
The History of Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164
Tort in the Republic of Indonesian Civil Code » 165
The Republic of Indonesian Law Number 5, 1999 in relation to Antimonopoly and Unfair Competition » 167
The Republic of Indonesian Consumer Protection Law Number 8, 1999 » 168
The Republic of Indonesian Trade Marks Law Number 15, 2001 » 168
The Bills of Government Regulation concerning the Procedures for Geographical Indication Registration » 173
The First Bill » 173
The Second Bill » 176
The Government Regulation Number 51 Year 2007 of the President of the Republic of Indonesia concerning Geographical Indication » 177
CHAPTER VI
The Advantage of Geographical Indications for Traditional Knowledge » 188
Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 188
Definition of Indigenous People and Their Cultural Expression » 189
Problems of Traditional Knowledge Protection » 192
Form » 192
Originality » 192
Ownership » 194
Duration of Protection » 195
Protection of Spiritual Values » 196
Several Efforts to Solve this Problem » 198
CHAPTER VII
The Connection between Intellectual Property Rig hts and Cultural Rig hts » 202
Cultural Rights in International Laws » 202
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 » 207
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) » 207
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) » 207
The Declaration on the Rights of Development 1986 » 207
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) » 208
The International Labour Organization Convention Number 169 » 208
The Draft Declaration on Indigenous Rights » 208
The Historical Context of Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 209
Examples of Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights Cases » 210
The Case of a Patent Right of a Plant Variety as well as a Cultural Right of Traditional Community in Amazon » 210
The Copyright Case and Cultural Right Case of a Group of Australian Aboriginal Painters » 211
The Geographical Indication Case and Cultural Right Case of Haryana Traditional Farmer » 213
Comparing Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 214
The Concept of ‘Severe Impact’ in the Lack of Cultural Right Fulfilment » 215
The Positive Values to connect Cultural Rights with Intellectual Property Rights » 216
CHAPTER VIII
A Cultural Rig hts Based Approach » 220
Rights Based Approach » 220
Universality, Non-Discrimination and Equality Principle » 221
Indivisibility or Interdependence Principle » 221
Accountability » 221
Participation » 221
The Rule of Law » 222
The Progressive Realization Principle » 222
A Cultural Rights-Based Approach » 223
Modified Rapid Rural Appraisal » 225
General Methodology » 227
Types of Data » 227
Method of Data Collection » 228
Library and On-Line Research » 228
Field Research » 228
Areas of Data Collection » 229
Institutional Data Areas » 229
Market Polling Areas » 229
Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 229
Methods of Data Analysis » 230
Detailed Methodology » 230
Participants » 232
Justifications for These Amounts » 322
Area of Focus Group » 234
The Number of Participants for the Focus Groups » 235
Selection and Exclusion Criteria for Participants » 235
Procedures » 236
Length of Time » 238
Places of Research » 239
CHAPTER IX
Field Research Results in Indonesia » 241
Market Polling » 241
Hero Supermarket » 242
Matahari Supermarket » 242
Total responses from Hero and Matahari Supermarkets » 244
Total Responses in Percentage » 244
Focus Group Discussion and Individual Interviews » 244
Sumbanese Woven Clothes » 245
Traditional Values » 246
The Existence of a Producer Association » 250
The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 251
The Map of Sumba Island » 253
Traditional Technology Know-How » 255
Kalimantan Timber » 258
The History of the Products » 260
The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 264
The Map of the Area » 268
Traditional Technology Know-How » 268
Pekalongan Batik » 273
The History and Special Character of the Products » 275
The Existence of Producer Associations » 279
The Map of Pekalongan City of Batik » 281
Traditional Technology Know-How » 281
Cilembu Sweet Potatoes » 286
The History of the Product » 288
The Existence of a Producer Association » 290
The Map of the Area » 293
Traditional Technology Know-How » 294
Borobudur Replicas » 296
The History of the Product » 298
The Existence of a Producer Association » 301
The Existence of a Spiritual Community Leader » 302
The Map of the Area » 306
Traditional Technology Know-How » 307
Ubud Painting Style » 309
The History of the Product » 310
The Kamasan Style » 314
The Batuan Style » 314
The Young Artists of Bali Style » 315
The Ubud Style » 315
The Existence of an Association » 316
The Map of the Area » 317
Traditional Technology Know-How » 318
Cakalang Fish » 319
The History of the Product » 320
The Existence of a Producer Association » 322
The Map of the Area » 324
Traditional Technology Know-How » 324
CHAPTER X
Field Research Results in Australia » 330
Goulburn Roses » 330
The History of the Product » 334
The Existence of a Producer Association » 335
The Map of the Area » 336
Traditional Technology Know-How » 337
Coonawarra Wine » 338
The History of the Product » 338
The Existence of a Producer Association » 342
The Map of the Area » 344
Traditional Technology Know-How » 345
CHAPTER XI
Discussion » 350
Scope of Geographical Indications, Indication of Sources and Appellation of Origins » 350
International Conventions related to Geographical Indications » 356
Controversy on the Protectable Elements of Geographical Indication » 361
Modes of Legal Means to Implement Geographical Indications » 363
Protection in the National Levels » 361
Inclusive-General Mode » 361
Inclusive Specific Mode » 363
Exclusive Level Mode » 364
Exclusive Non-Level Mode » 365
Different Legal Means in Selected Countries » 366
The United States of America » 366
The European Community » 367
France » 369
Australia » 370
India » 371
Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Cambodia » 371
Singapore » 371
Malaysia » 372
Thailand » 373
Cambodia » 373
The Philippines and Brunei Darussalam » 374
The Philippines » 374
Brunei Darussalam » 374
The Republic of Socialist Vietnam » 375
Laos People Democratic Republic and Myanmar » 9
Laos » 376
Myanmar » 377
Indonesia » 377
The Proposed Character of Indonesian Legal Means to Protect Geographical Indications » 377
TRIPS Obligations and the Cultural and Legal Diversity in the South East Asian Countries » 377
Principles in the Republic of Indonesian 1945 Constitution and the Republic of Indonesian Law Number 11, 2005 concerning the Ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights » 380
Contribution of Qualitative Field Research in the Indonesian Selected Areas » 382
Inputs Generated from Qualitative Research in Indonesian Selected Areas » 384
Analysis of the Field Research Results in Indonesia » 384
National Reputation » 386
History » 388
Producers Associations » 389
Community Leaders » 390
Clustered Areas » 391
Cilembu Sweet Potato Clustered Area of Production » 391
Cakalang Fish Clustered Area of Production » 392
Pekalongan Batik Clustered Area of Production » 392
Ubud Painting Style Clustered Area of Production » 394
Borobudur Replicas Clustered Area of Production » 393
Kalimantan Timber Clustered Area of Production » 394
Sumbanese Woven Clothes Clustered Area of Production » 394
Traditional Know-How » 395
The Possibility of Protections » 395
Inputs from Qualitative Field Research in the Australian Selected Areas » 396
The Principles of Geographical Indication Protection in Indonesia » 396
Critical Review on the Existing Geographical Indications Protection System in Indonesia » 397
CHAPTER XI
Conclusions and Recommendations » 404
Conclusions » 404
Recommendations » 405
Bibliography » 406

Cover_Miranda_OKGeographical Indications Protection In Indonesia Based on Cultural Rights Approach | Miranda Risang Ayu | The Nagara Institute | 408 p | 15 x 24 cm (hard cover) | ISBN 978-979-1436-17-5 | Rp 200.000 (LIMITED EDITION)

Geograpichal Indication is a type of Intelectual Property Right which consist of a trade name on a product that identifies a geographical origin, and perticularly, a special character resulted from the origin, that makes a product distinctive.

This research is started by exploring several aspects which can influence the establishment of the legal means in national levels; the international laws, the variations of legal means in a number of selected countries, and the current development of Geographical Indication in every South Easth Asian countries.

It is than focused on the Indonesian legal protection for Geographical Indications. This research contributes four optional models of legal means to protect Geographical Indication in the national levels hich can be applicable for Indonesia and other TRIPS member countries. This research will also propose the best legal means, including all important aspects, to develop a solid protection for Geographical Indication in Indonesia.

* * * *

Miranda Risang Ayu was born on August, 10, 1968, in Bandung, Indonesia. She finished her undergraduate (SH) in the Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (1987-1993). Under the Australian developmant Scholarships, she followed a Master of Laws (LLM) program in 2002 and a Doctor of Philosopy in Laws (PhD) Program between 2004-2007 in the Faculty of Law, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Now, she is a law lecturer and head of Intelectual Property Rights Office in the University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables and Charts » 16

List of Maps » 17

List of Pictures » 18

Abstract » 21

CHAPTER I

Introduction » 24

Background » 24

Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 25

Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 27

Protectable Elements » 30

Geographical Indications Protection in Developed Countries » 33

Geographical Indications Protection in South East Asian Countries » 33

Geographical Indications Implementation Problem in Indonesia » 35

Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 37

The Cultural Rights Based Approach » 37

The Advantages of Using Cultural Rights Based Approach in Indonesia » 37

Research Questions » 38

Aims and Objectives » 39

Output » 39

Hypotheses » 39

Methodology » 40

Types of Data » 40

Methods of Data Collection » 40

Library and On-Line Research » 40

Field Research » 40

Areas of Data Collection » 41

Institutional Data Areas » 41

Market Polling Areas » 41

Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 41

Methods of Data Analysis » 43

CHAPTER II

Geographical Indications Protection in the Context of International Law » 46

Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46

The Brief History of TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46

The International Trade Organization » 48

The Birth of the TRIPS Agreement » 49

Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 52

Geographical Indications as the TRIPS In-Built Agenda in the WTO Ministerial Conferences » 59

Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 61

The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 » 61

The Madrid Agreement, 1891 and The Madrid Protocol concerning the International Registration of Marks, 1989 » 64

The Madrid Agreement, 1891 for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods » 65

The Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and Their International Registration, 1958 » 66

The Stresa Convention for the Use of Appellation of Origin and Denomination of Cheeses, 1951 » 68

Legal Concepts related to Geographical Indications in International Conventions » 68

A Comparison between the Concepts of Geographical Indications, Appellation of Origins, Designation of Origins and Indication of Source » 68

Geographical Indications » 70

Appellation of Origins » 72

Designation of Origins » 74

Indication of Source » 76

Legal Concepts in Trade Mark Law and Practice concerning Geographical Indications » 78

Collective Marks » 9

Certification Marks » 9

Legal Concept of Anti Unfair Competition concerning Geographical Indications » 79

The Common Law’s Tort of Passing-Off » 80

The Extension of the Meaning of Producers and Public of a Geographical Indication » 82

The Extension of the Passing-Off Concept » 84

Protectable Elements in Geographical Indications » 85

The Meaning of ‘Indications which Identify a Good’ » 86

The Meaning of ‘a Good’ » 87

The Meaning of ‘Originating in the Territory of a Member, or a Region or Locality in that Territory’ » 88

The Meaning of ‘Quality, Reputation or Other

Characteristic’ » 89

The Meaning of ‘Essentially Attributable to Its Geographical Origin’ » 90

CHAPTER III

Geographical Indications in Europe, The United States of America, Australia and India » 94

Geographical Indications Protection in the European Community » 95

The Legal Bases of Geographical Indication Protection in the European Community » 95

The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 2081, 1992 » 97

The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 510, 2006 » 99

The Importance of the ‘Turron’ Decision » 100

Geographical Indications in France » 101

Appellation of Origins in France » 101

Geographical Indications in France » 102

Indication of Source in France » 103

Geographical Indications Protection in the United States of America » 104

Certification Marks under the United States Trade Mark Act,1946 » 105

Ownership » 107

Wines and Spirits Protection under The United States Trade Marks Act 1946 and The United States Regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) » 108

Homonymous Geographical Indications » 109

Geographical Indication Protection in the United States Common Law Protection System » 110

Law Enforcement for Geographical Indications in the United States Trade Mark Counterfeiting Act, 1984 » 110

Geographical Indications Protection System in Australia » 110

Australian Membership in International Conventions in respect to Geographical Indications » 111

The TRIPS Agreement, 1994 » 112

Australia in accordance with Bilateral Agreements regarding Geographical Indications Protection » 112

Bilateral Agreement between Australia and The European Union, 1994 » 112

Australia and New Zealand Cooperation Concerning Food Authority Labelling and Advertising Standard » 114

Australian National Protection System for Geographical Indications » 114

The Australian Trade Practice Act, 1974 (Cth) » 114

The Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation Act, 1980 and the Australian Food Standards Code Spirit Standard » 115

Geographical Indication Protection in the Australian Trade Mark Act, 1995 (Cth) » 116

The Categorization System of Geographical Indications on Goods in regard with the Nice Agreement » 118

Geographical Indications in India » 119

CHAPTER IV

Geographical Indications in South East Asian Countries » 128

Geographical Indications in Singapore » 128

Geographical Indications in the Philippines » 130

Geographical Indications in Malaysia » 136

Geographical Indications in Brunei Darussalam » 139

Geographical Indications in Thailand » 140

Geographical Indications in Cambodia » 141

Geographical Indications in Lao People Democratic Republic » 147

Geographical Indications in Myanmar » 150

Geographical Indications in Vietnam » 152

Vietnam’s Basic Laws in Protecting Geographical Indications » 153

The Civil Code of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 153

The Government Decree Number 63/CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 155

The Government Decree Number 12/1999/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 156

The Government Decree Number 54/2000/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 158

CHAPTER V

Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164

The History of Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164

Tort in the Republic of Indonesian Civil Code » 165

The Republic of Indonesian Law Number 5, 1999 in relation to Antimonopoly and Unfair Competition » 167

The Republic of Indonesian Consumer Protection Law Number 8, 1999 » 168

The Republic of Indonesian Trade Marks Law Number 15, 2001 » 168

The Bills of Government Regulation concerning the Procedures for Geographical Indication Registration » 173

The First Bill » 173

The Second Bill » 176

The Government Regulation Number 51 Year 2007 of the President of the Republic of Indonesia concerning Geographical Indication » 177

CHAPTER VI

The Advantage of Geographical Indications for Traditional Knowledge » 188

Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 188

Definition of Indigenous People and Their Cultural Expression » 189

Problems of Traditional Knowledge Protection » 192

Form » 192

Originality » 192

Ownership » 194

Duration of Protection » 195

Protection of Spiritual Values » 196

Several Efforts to Solve this Problem » 198

CHAPTER VII

The Connection between Intellectual Property Rig hts and Cultural Rig hts » 202

Cultural Rights in International Laws » 202

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 » 207

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) » 207

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) » 207

The Declaration on the Rights of Development 1986 » 207

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) » 208

The International Labour Organization Convention Number 169 » 208

The Draft Declaration on Indigenous Rights » 208

The Historical Context of Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 209

Examples of Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights Cases » 210

The Case of a Patent Right of a Plant Variety as well as a Cultural Right of Traditional Community in Amazon » 210

The Copyright Case and Cultural Right Case of a Group of Australian Aboriginal Painters » 211

The Geographical Indication Case and Cultural Right Case of Haryana Traditional Farmer » 213

Comparing Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 214

The Concept of ‘Severe Impact’ in the Lack of Cultural Right Fulfilment » 215

The Positive Values to connect Cultural Rights with Intellectual Property Rights » 216

CHAPTER VIII

A Cultural Rig hts Based Approach » 220

Rights Based Approach » 220

Universality, Non-Discrimination and Equality Principle » 221

Indivisibility or Interdependence Principle » 221

Accountability » 221

Participation » 221

The Rule of Law » 222

The Progressive Realization Principle » 222

A Cultural Rights-Based Approach » 223

Modified Rapid Rural Appraisal » 225

General Methodology » 227

Types of Data » 227

Method of Data Collection » 228

Library and On-Line Research » 228

Field Research » 228

Areas of Data Collection » 229

Institutional Data Areas » 229

Market Polling Areas » 229

Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 229

Methods of Data Analysis » 230

Detailed Methodology » 230

Participants » 232

Justifications for These Amounts » 322

Area of Focus Group » 234

The Number of Participants for the Focus Groups » 235

Selection and Exclusion Criteria for Participants » 235

Procedures » 236

Length of Time » 238

Places of Research » 239

CHAPTER IX

Field Research Results in Indonesia » 241

Market Polling » 241

Hero Supermarket » 242

Matahari Supermarket » 242

Total responses from Hero and Matahari Supermarkets » 244

Total Responses in Percentage » 244

Focus Group Discussion and Individual Interviews » 244

Sumbanese Woven Clothes » 245

Traditional Values » 246

The Existence of a Producer Association » 250

The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 251

The Map of Sumba Island » 253

Traditional Technology Know-How » 255

Kalimantan Timber » 258

The History of the Products » 260

The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 264

The Map of the Area » 268

Traditional Technology Know-How » 268

Pekalongan Batik » 273

The History and Special Character of the Products » 275

The Existence of Producer Associations » 279

The Map of Pekalongan City of Batik » 281

Traditional Technology Know-How » 281

Cilembu Sweet Potatoes » 286

The History of the Product » 288

The Existence of a Producer Association » 290

The Map of the Area » 293

Traditional Technology Know-How » 294

Borobudur Replicas » 296

The History of the Product » 298

The Existence of a Producer Association » 301

The Existence of a Spiritual Community Leader » 302

The Map of the Area » 306

Traditional Technology Know-How » 307

Ubud Painting Style » 309

The History of the Product » 310

The Kamasan Style » 314

The Batuan Style » 314

The Young Artists of Bali Style » 315

The Ubud Style » 315

The Existence of an Association » 316

The Map of the Area » 317

Traditional Technology Know-How » 318

Cakalang Fish » 319

The History of the Product » 320

The Existence of a Producer Association » 322

The Map of the Area » 324

Traditional Technology Know-How » 324

CHAPTER X

Field Research Results in Australia » 330

Goulburn Roses » 330

The History of the Product » 334

The Existence of a Producer Association » 335

The Map of the Area » 336

Traditional Technology Know-How » 337

Coonawarra Wine » 338

The History of the Product » 338

The Existence of a Producer Association » 342

The Map of the Area » 344

Traditional Technology Know-How » 345

CHAPTER XI

Discussion » 350

Scope of Geographical Indications, Indication of Sources and Appellation of Origins » 350

International Conventions related to Geographical Indications » 356

Controversy on the Protectable Elements of Geographical Indication » 361

Modes of Legal Means to Implement Geographical Indications » 363

Protection in the National Levels » 361

Inclusive-General Mode » 361

Inclusive Specific Mode » 363

Exclusive Level Mode » 364

Exclusive Non-Level Mode » 365

Different Legal Means in Selected Countries » 366

The United States of America » 366

The European Community » 367

France » 369

Australia » 370

India » 371

Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Cambodia » 371

Singapore » 371

Malaysia » 372

Thailand » 373

Cambodia » 373

The Philippines and Brunei Darussalam » 374

The Philippines » 374

Brunei Darussalam » 374

The Republic of Socialist Vietnam » 375

Laos People Democratic Republic and Myanmar » 9

Laos » 376

Myanmar » 377

Indonesia » 377

The Proposed Character of Indonesian Legal Means to Protect Geographical Indications » 377

TRIPS Obligations and the Cultural and Legal Diversity in the South East Asian Countries » 377

Principles in the Republic of Indonesian 1945 Constitution and the Republic of Indonesian Law Number 11, 2005 concerning the Ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights » 380

Contribution of Qualitative Field Research in the Indonesian Selected Areas » 382

Inputs Generated from Qualitative Research in Indonesian Selected Areas » 384

Analysis of the Field Research Results in Indonesia » 384

National Reputation » 386

History » 388

Producers Associations » 389

Community Leaders » 390

Clustered Areas » 391

Cilembu Sweet Potato Clustered Area of Production » 391

Cakalang Fish Clustered Area of Production » 392

Pekalongan Batik Clustered Area of Production » 392

Ubud Painting Style Clustered Area of Production » 394

Borobudur Replicas Clustered Area of Production » 393

Kalimantan Timber Clustered Area of Production » 394

Sumbanese Woven Clothes Clustered Area of Production » 394

Traditional Know-How » 395

The Possibility of Protections » 395

Inputs from Qualitative Field Research in the Australian Selected Areas » 396

The Principles of Geographical Indication Protection in Indonesia » 396

Critical Review on the Existing Geographical Indications Protection System in Indonesia » 397

CHAPTER XI

Conclusions and Recommendations » 404

Conclusions » 404

Recommendations » 405

Bibliography » 406

————————————

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